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156-816 - Check Point Certified Managed Security Expert Plus VSX NGX - Dump Information

Vendor : CheckPoint
Exam Code : 156-816
Exam Name : Check Point Certified Managed Security Expert Plus VSX NGX
Questions and Answers : 106 Q & A
Updated On : December 5, 2017
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156-816 Questions and Answers


QUESTION: 63

When configuring a new Virtual System for your VSX Gateway configuration, what should you do first?

  1. Open the Admin CMA SmartDashboard and create a new Virtual System object
  2. Open the Global SmartDashboard and create a new Virtual System object
  3. Open the Admin CMA SmartDashboard and create a new CMA object to be used as the Virtual System's Management Server
  4. Create a new Customer and CMA, to be used as the Virtual System's Management Server
  5. Add a new Virtual System to the Main Customer, so that the Admin CMA can be used as the Management Sever

Answer: D


QUESTION: 64

When deploying a VSX Gateway managed by a SmartCenter Server, which of the following statements is TRUE?

  1. VSX Administrators can configure different domains for each Virtual System
  2. Multiple Administrators can simultaneously connect to the same databases to manage multiple customers
  3. VSX Superuser Administrators can configure granular permissions for each Customer Administrator
  4. All Customer objects, rules and users are shred in a single database
  5. Each Virtual System has its own unique Certificate Authority

Answer: D


QUESTION: 65

Which of the following commands should you run to stop a VSX Gateway Cluster?

  1. cphastop
  2. cpstop
  3. vsxstop
  4. vsxhastop
  5. vsx cpstop

Answer: B


QUESTION: 66

Which of the following VSX Gateway configuration is valid?

  1. A shared NIC assigned to different Virtual Systems, with the same IP addresses on the same VLAN
  2. A shared NIC assigned to different Virtual Systems, with the same IP address on different VLANs
  3. Multiple NICs assigned to different Virtual Systems in Bridge Mode, performing Hide NAT
  4. Multiple NICs assigned the same IP addresses, for each Virtual System in the configuration but with different VLAN tags
  5. A shared NIC assigned to different Virtual Systems, with different IP addresses on the same VLAN

Answer: B


QUESTION: 67

A Virtual Router performs which of the following tasks?

  1. Network Address Translation for protected customer networks
  2. Security Policy application for protected customer networks
  3. Packet inspection for protected customer networks
  4. Inter-Virtual System routing
  5. Synchronization between VSX Gateways in a cluster

Answer: D


QUESTION: 68

Which of the following virtual devise will NOT fail over, if its interface fails in a VSX High Availability configuration?

  1. Virtual System in Bridge Mode
  2. Management Virtual System Interface
  3. External Virtual Router

  4. Internal Virtual Router
  5. Virtual System with VLAN interfaces

Answer: A


QUESTION: 69

What is the required to prevent loops in Virtual Systems in a Cluster XL environment?

  1. MPLS
  2. VRRP
  3. BPDU
  4. STP
  5. OSPF

Answer: D


QUESTION: 70

Security Policies enforced by Virtual Systems are applied to connected to the Virtual IP Stack.

  1. Warp Interfaces
  2. Warp and Virtual Interfaces
  3. All Interfaces
  4. Virtual Interfaces
  5. Physical Interfaces

Answer: C


QUESTION: 71

The External Virtual Router is associated with a dedicated interface. It is considered to be which type of interface?

  1. Physical
  2. Virtual
  3. Symbolic

  4. Synchronization
  5. Warp

Answer: A


QUESTION: 72

Which of the following MDS types allows you to create and manage a VSX Gateway?

  1. MDS Manager station
  2. MDS SmartCenter for VSX
  3. MDS Container station
  4. MDS VSX Integrator
  5. MDS MLM

Answer: C


QUESTION: 73

Which of the following can function as a Management Server for a VSX Gateway?

  1. Security Management Portal
  2. Check Point Integrity
  3. Provider-1 NGX; Multi-Log Monitor
  4. VPN-1/Firewall-1 Small Office
  5. SmartCenter Server

Answer: B, E


QUESTION: 74

When configuring Virtual Switch leading to the internet, which of the following items is required when creating a virtual switch object?

  1. Dedicated interface
  2. Subnet mask
  3. Default Gateway
  4. VLAN tag

  5. IP Address

Answer: A


QUESTION: 75

What is the netmask for each configured Warp Link?

A. 255.255.255.0
B. 0.0.0.0
C. 255.255.0.0
D. Same as the netmask of the default route of the External Virtual Router E. 255.255.255.255

Answer: E


QUESTION: 76

Bridged Virtual Systems in a cluster monitor which of the following protocols, to fail over a bridged system?

  1. PBDU
  2. OSPF
  3. STP
  4. VTP
  5. MPLS

Answer: A


QUESTION: 77

Which of the following VLAN membership types is considered explicit in its propogation?

  1. MAC address-based
  2. Application-based
  3. Session-based
  4. Protocol-based

Answer: D


QUESTION: 78

Which of the following objects allows you to configure resource settings, to limit the number of concurrent connections?

  1. Internal Virtual Router
  2. Virtual Switch
  3. Virtual Systems
  4. External Virtual Router
  5. VSX Gateway

Answer: C


QUESTION: 79

Which of the following VSX components maintain Layer-3 connectivity?

  1. Virtual System in Bridge Mode
  2. VLAN interface
  3. Internal Virtual Switch
  4. External Virtual Switch
  5. Virtual Router

Answer: E


CheckPoint 156-816 Exam (Check Point Certified Managed Security Expert Plus VSX NGX) Detailed Information

Training & Certification
Check Point offers a wide range of education programs, professional certifications and self-study resources developed in-house by Check Point security experts. Training is available from our global network of Authorized Training Centers (ATC).
TRAINING CALENDAR
FIND A TRAINING
CENTER
CERTIFICATION FAQ
Training
Together with our Authorized Training Centers, we offer comprehensive technical training and certifications for IT security professionals who deploy and manage Check Point Security solutions.
Entry-level Security Awareness
Text book and course covers important principles of CyberSecurity from a vendor neutral perspective. Concepts include issues of physical and document security along with data protection and recovery in the event of data or systems loss.
Security Principles Associate
Core Security Administrator Training
Three-day course covers everything you need to start-up, configure and manage daily operations of Check Point Security Gateway and Management Software Blades systems on the GAiA operating system.
Security Administrator R77.30
Security Administrator R80
Core Security Expert Training
Advanced three-day course teaches how to build, modify, deploy and troubleshoot Check Point Security Systems on the GAiA operating system. Hands-on lab exercises teach how to debug firewall processes, optimize VPN performance and upgrade Management Servers.
Security Engineering
NextGen Security Training
Learn how to deploy the latest cyber-security solutions to defend and prevent today’s evolving threats
Threat Prevention
Secure Web Gateway
Advanced Security Training
Learn to manage virtualized security in high-end networks and advanced security optimization techniques.
MDSM with VSX
Security Master
Custom Training
Certifications
Check Point Certifications mean expertise with the technology that secures the internet for all Fortune and Global 100 companies. The benefits of becoming Check Point certified include the skills to support and sell Check Point products, 2-year expert access to our SecureKnowledge database and advanced product documentation.
Getting Started: A Check Point UserCenter or PartnerMap account is required to receive certification benefits. You can create a new account at the User Center. If you are not sure about your account, please contact Account Services for verification. You also need a Pearson VUE account, and the email address should be the same as your UserCenter account.
Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R80
Essential certification for IT Admins who manage daily operations of Check Point Security solutions.
Course Description and Exam Information
Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R77.30
Essential certification for IT Admins who manage daily operations of Check Point Security solutions.
Course Description and Exam Information
Check Point Certified Security Expert (CCSE) R77.30
The next level of certification proves troubleshooting skills and the ability to maximize the performance of security networks.
Course Description and Exam Information
Check Point Managed Security Expert (CCMSE)
Advanced certification proves expertise in Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension.
Course Description and Exam Information
Check Point Certified Security Master (CCSM) R77.30
Our most technical certification proves advanced use of time-saving commands to configure and troubleshoot Check Point Security Systems.
GENERAL INQUIRIES
Q: What is the difference between “Certification” and “Accreditation”?
A: Check Point recognizes those professionals who have passed a rigorous, thorough examination process with a
“Certification”. Certifications are based on proctored exams derived from comprehensive job models and detailed
instructional objectives.
Accreditations are derived from product specific content exams delivered in a less formal examination setting and
recognize an individual’s effort to stay current on the latest products.
Q: What versions are available?
A: Our Current certifications are based on R77.30 and the new R80.
Q: How long will R77.30 be available?
A: Current projections have the R77.30 exams retiring 3rd quarter 2017.
Q: How long does a certification last?
A: Certification, like security, must be kept current to be truly effective - which is why we strongly encourage you to
constantly refresh and keep your certification current. Certifications expire after 24 months.
Q: Where can I take a Check Point certification exam?
A: Check Point professional certification exams are proctored through Pearson VUE, a third party testing vendor with
over 3.500 locations worldwide. You can register for any Check Point exam and earn your certification by visiting
Pearson VUE website and creating a Web Profile.
Q: Do I have to take classes in order to take the exams?
A: No, it is possible to take an exam with only your own experience or self-study using the Check Point courseware,
but we highly recommend taking a class instead. Instructor-led training accelerates and focuses your learning,
gives you hands-on experience and an opportunity to make mistakes in the lab, and is much more cost-effective
than self-study in your spare time.
CHECK POINT EDUCATION SERVICES
CERTIFICATION FAQ
Updated September 2016 2
Q: What certifications are available?
A: Check Point certifications are structured around comprehensive job models for administration, engineering
(Expert), enterprise management, and advanced systems (Security Master). Certifications include:
Core Security courses establish a strong foundation in essential Check Point product knowledge and skills
Certifications Related Courses Exams
CCSPA
Check Point Certified Security Principles
Associate
Principles of Network Security
#156-110
CCSA
Check Point Certified Security Administrator
Check Point Security Administration #156-215
CCSE
Check Point Certified Security Expert
Check Point Security Administration #156-215
Check Point Security Engineering #156-315
Advanced Specializations recognize your proficiency and expertise in specific disciplines and technologies
Certifications Related Courses Exams
CCSM
Check Point Certified Security Master
Check Point Certified Security Master #156-115
CCMSE
Check Point Managed Security Expert
Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual
System Extension #156-820
Q: What are the prerequisites for each Check Point certification?
A: Check Point certifications are designed to build upon the knowledge and skills of the previous courses, reinforcing
lessons learned and extending your competencies with ever more complex and valuable skills.
Certifications Prerequisites
CCSPA
Check Point Certified Security Principles Associate None
CCSA R77
Check Point Certified Security Administrator R77
TCP/IP and routing
fundamentals
CCSA R80
Check Point Certified Security Administrator R80
TCP/IP and routing
fundamentals
CCSE R77
Check Point Certified Security Expert R77 CCSA R77
CCSE R77 Update
Check Point Certified Security Expert R77 Any prior CCSE up to R65
CCSM
Check Point Certified Security Master R77 CCSE R77
CCMSE R77
Check Point Managed Security Expert R77 CCSE R77
Updated September 2016 3
Q: What courses should I take to prepare for the exams?
A: To help prepare for exams, you should consider the following corresponding courses:
Core Security courses establish a strong foundation in essential Check Point product knowledge and skills
Exams Courses Certifications
#156-110 Principles of Network Security
CCSPA
Check Point Certified Security Principles
Associate
#156-215 Check Point Security Administration R80
CCSA R80
Check Point Certified Security Administrator
R80
#156-215 Check Point Security Administration R77
CCSA R77
Check Point Certified Security Administrator
R77
#156-215 Check Point Security Administration R77 CCSE R77
Check Point Certified Security Expert R77 #156-315 Check Point Security Engineering R77
#156-915 CCSE R77 Update CCSE R77 Update
Check Point Certified Security Expert R77
Advanced Specializations recognize your proficiency and expertise in specific disciplines and technologies
Exams Courses Certifications
#156-115.77 Check Point Security Master R77 CCSM R77
Check Point Certified Security Master
#156-820.77 Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual
System Extension
CCMSE R77
Check Point Managed Security Expert R77
Q: Is study material available?
A: Exam objectives are posted on the Education Services page for reference, but all official training materials are
provided when you attend instructor-led training through one of our Authorized Training Center (ATC) partners.
Q: Where can I find training classes?
A: Courses are offered through our network of over 230 Authorized Training Centers (ATC) around the globe. Use
our partner locator to find an ATC near you and sign up for training today!
Q: Are classes available globally?
A: Yes! We have Authorized Training Centers (ATC) in over 42 countries worldwide - just use our partner locator to
find an ATC near you and sign up for training. If for any reason you can't find an ATC near you, send an email to
us directly at training@checkpoint.com and ask about on-site training options.
Q: How long are the classes recommended for certification exams?
A: Check Point recommends minimum time frames for each course, but individual Authorized Training Centers
(ATC) may choose to adjust the time to offer more 'intensive' courses or to cover topics in more detail. You should
check with your local ATC for the exact length of each course to be sure the time fits your schedule.
Updated September 2016 4
Q: I know that CCSA certification is a prerequisite for CCSE. Can I achieve a CCSE R80
certification with a CCSA R70 or later certification?
A: No. Since R80 is a completely new product version with many new features, only CCSA R80 certification provides
the background necessary to be a prerequisite to CCSE R80 certification.
However, if you have a CCSE based on NGX or the Blade technology, you are eligible to take our upgrade exam
#156-915 to earn your CCSE R80 certification.
Q: When will my R77 certifications expire?
A: Check Point Certifications are good for 24 months.
Q: My R70 certifications have already expired. Do I need to start over with CCSA R80 to update to
CCSE R80?
A: Actually, you don’t. Even though your certification has expired, the eligibility for updates to the latest version has
not. If you ever held a CCSE certification, you are eligible for the Update exam.
Q: Why has the 156-915.77 exam been removed from the exam list?
A: The 156-915.77 exam was retired as soon as the 156-915.80 exam was released. Check Point only offers
updates to the latest version of the product.
Q: How can I learn about updates in the Check Point Certified Professional Program?
A: You can always find the latest information on our News and Updates page, including special offers on the most indemand
courses and certifications.
Back to top
MY INFORMATION
Q: Why is my Check Point Professional ID Number important?
A: It represents your personal identification with Check Point Software Technologies and establishes proof of your
certification. You are only allowed one Certified Professional ID number.
Q: How do I get my Check Point Professional ID Number?
A: It is assigned to you when you register with VUE for the first time to take an exam. It will be in the form
CP00000nnnnn.
Q: When do I use my Check Point Professional ID Number?
A: Whenever you contact VUE to register for another exam session, and whenever you contact Check Point
regarding any certification issue.
Q: Why do I need to provide an email address?
A: An email address is necessary in order to create your User Center account - your access point for certification
benefits - as well as keep you up to date with any important changes or updates.
Q: If I change jobs, will I still have access to my certification information and benefits?
A: Yes! Your certification is yours. However, since your email address is based on your work email you will want to
contact Account Services via accountservices@checkpoint.com to update your User Center account and request
that your information be linked to your new email address.
Q: How do I advise Check Point of any change of address or other relevant information?
A: You can send your profile updates to accountservices@checkpoint.com.
Back to top
Updated September 2016 5
WHAT ABOUT THE BENEFITS
Q: I just passed my exams. When can I expect to receive my certificate?
A: Check Point now provides e-Certificates that you can access from your User Center profile. Once we receive your
exam results we'll update your User Center account with your new credentials, giving you immediate access to
your online benefits like Access to SecureKnowledge and your on-line Certification Profile.
Q. How do I download the electronic copy of my certification?
A: To download your certificate(s), please follow the instructions below.
1. Log into User Center at https://usercenter.checkpoint.com/usercenter/portal
2. Click "Assets/Info".
3. Click "My Certifications" under "My Info" option.
4. Click "Download" to the right of the certificate to open/save/print.
a. Open to print.
b. Save to print later.
c. Cancel to do nothing.
Q: What type of SecureKnowledge access do CCSA's get?
A: Advanced Access for the duration of the CCSA contract.
Q: What SecureKnowledge access does a CCSE get?
A: Advanced Access for the duration of the CCSE contract.
Q: What SecureKnowledge access does a CCSM get?
A: Expert Access for the duration of the CCSM contract.
Q: What SecureKnowledge access does a CCMSE get?
A: Advanced Access for the duration of the CCMSE contract.
Q: How do I access my benefits?
A: By setting up a User Centre account based on the email address you used with VUE, you can have access to our
Certified Professionals Only web site and to advanced features of Secure Knowledge. Please try the following:
If you do not currently have a User Center account, please visit the following URL:
https://usercenter.checkpoint.com/usercenter/index.jsp
You may reference at the bottom of the page a section titled "New Customers":
1. Click on the hyperlink titled "Sign Up Now!"
2. Begin completing your profile.
3. Use the email ID provided VUE for testing.
4. Set your own password.
Q: How do I find the Certified Professionals Only website?
A: By clicking on the link https://www.checkpoint.com/services/education/cpo/index.html
Q: Do I have access to Check Point online technical support?
A: Yes. As a Certified Professional you have Advanced Access to SecureKnowledge, our online technical knowledge
database with thousands of solutions, how to articles, and troubleshooting tips to solve your most difficult issues.
Q: Are there logos associated with Check Point certifications?
A: Yes. As a certified professional you have usage rights to the logo for your certification level. Logos for each Check
Point certification are downloadable from the Certified Professional Only website.
Updated September 2016 6
Q: Will becoming a Check Point Certified Professional improve my career or employment
opportunities?
A: Companies hire certified professionals to ensure maximum security and availability of valuable business assets,
and know certified professionals are more efficient, productive, and deliver lower total cost of ownership from
Check Point solutions. And as one of over 50,000 Check Point Certified Professionals worldwide, you'll get
immediate recognition of your experience, knowledge, and abilities while investing in your professional
development and security career.
Q: Where do I go to access my benefits?
A: All benefits are accessed through your User Center account. Create a User Center account now if you don't
already have one. If you have any problems with creating your account and linking your certifications, contact
accountservices@checkpoint.com
Q: Why is my certification information not listed in my User Center account?
A: Your certification information could not be listed in your User Center account for one of the following reasons:
• We tried to activate your benefits but there was no User Center account with the email address we have on
file for you. Please check to ensure that the email account you provided VUE for registration matches the
email account you used to set up your User Center account.
• The benefits you received from a certain Check Point certification have expired.
• We might not have received your results from Pearson VUE.
If you do not see your benefits or certification listed with your User Center account, send an email to
accountservices@checkpoint.com and we'll try to resolve the issue for you.
Q: What email address should be used when registering for an exam?
A: It is important that the email address used when registering for an exam is the email address associated to your
User Center profile. This ensures that all certifications are reflected within the User Center and the e-certificate
can be downloaded via the account.
Q: Can certifications get tied to an alias email address?
A: All certifications must be tied to a person-specific email address.
Q: How do I update the email address associated to my User Center profile?
A: For assistance or the steps of how to update your email address online, please contact our Account Services
department for assistance; accountservices@checkpoint.com.
Q: What should I do if my Pearson VUE profile has the wrong email address?
A: Please contact Pearson VUE for assistance; http://www.pearsonvue.com/checkpoint/contact/
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TELL ME ABOUT THE EXAMS
Q: What is the difference between “low stakes” and “high stakes” exams?
A: All Check Point exams are delivered through Pearson VUE. “Low stakes” exams are those delivered over the
Internet to your desktop. They do not require attendance at a Pearson VUE Authorized Testing Center (ATC).
“High stakes” exams are only delivered at Pearson VUE Authorized Testing Centers (ATC) and delivery meets
certain exacting compliance standards.
Q: In what order should I take the exams?
A: Courses, certifications, and exams are all designed to build on the lessons learned and develop your skills and
knowledge, so we recommend starting with CCSA R77 and CCSE R77 to get a core security foundation. From
there you can choose the specialization or area of expertise that best matches your job role or career goals.
See the complete list of courses, exams, and prerequisites earlier in the FAQ for more information.
Updated September 2016 7
Q: How much do the exams cost?
A: Exams vary in price between US $150-$200, but exact pricing is available through Pearson VUE.
Q: Where can I take a Check Point certification exam?
A: Check Point exams are offered through Pearson VUE, a third party testing vendor with over 3,500 testing centers
worldwide. Register for your exam at a testing location near you.
Q: What is the format of the exams?
A: The exams are composed of multiple choice and scenario questions. All questions are “Select the BEST answer”
type questions. There are no multiple response.
Q: How long are the exams?
A: We use a 90-minute exam in all English-speaking countries. Non-English speaking countries receive an additional
30 minutes.
Q: How do I know I am ready for an exam?
A: If you are preparing for the CCSA certification and want to take the 156-215 exam, you can determine if you are
ready by taking the 156-601 CCSA R77 practice exam. This exam presents 40 questions from a subset of the
actual exam pool. Feedback is limited to providing the correct answer during the exam.
If you are preparing to complete the CCSE certification and want to take the 156-315 exam, you can determine if
you are ready by taking the 156-602 CCSE R77 practice exam. This exam presents 40 questions from a subset of
the actual exam pool. Feedback is limited to providing the correct answer during the exam.
Q: Are the Check Point certification exams adaptive?
A: Check Point has no plans at this time to move into adaptive exams.
Q: Do any of the exams contain questions where the correct answer relies on the selection of
multiple responses, even though the exam doesn't indicate to check more than one?
A: Although the instructions for each exam state that there is one BEST answer, in truth the best answer may be a
combination of more than one in the final results. We do this to evaluate how each student reaches their
conclusion and makes difficult choices, just like you will be faced with on the job. However, there is no partial
credit for incorrectly marked questions.
Q: Should I have experience with Check Point products before attempting to pass an exam?
A: Surveys of certified professionals suggest that a candidate have one to two years’ experience with the product in
a production environment before attempting the CCSA certification. Since that isn’t practical in today’s
environment, we recommend six months after training. A similar interval trended when studying the Engineering
tasks of a certified CCSE professional. We recommend one year. The new Check Point Security Master
certification job profile suggests five years’ experience before challenging the exam. Of course, this varies by
individual.
Q: Can I take the CCSA and CCSE exams on the same day?
A: Yes, you can take the CCSA exam and later that same day, challenge the CCSE exam.
Q: Does Check Point have an exam retake policy?
A: Yes. If you fail an exam and want to retake it, the following applies:
• Wait 24 hours after first unsuccessful attempt
• Wait 30 days after each subsequent attempt thereafter
Note: Once you pass an exam you cannot take it again.
Updated September 2016 8
Q: I have taken the exam twice, and scored exactly the same thing. How is this possible? Is there a
problem with the exam or the testing software?
A: This is actually quite common, and indicates how reliable Check Point's exams are in testing your knowledge and
skills. To create the best certification exams, we focus on consistency and on how an exam will measure
competencies.
There is a related learning/testing condition called "plateauing". Let's say you've studied hard, practiced the labs
and exercises, and absorbed all you can through the current study approach. Studies and experience show you
will consistently score the same regardless how much you review the material beyond that point.
In this case the best solution for you would be to take a different study approach to gain new insight, and retain
more knowledge than you would in just one method - we suggest taking an additional class, or working through
some different practice exercises.
Q: Does Check Point penalize incorrect answers?
A: Check Point does not subtract points from your score for answering a question incorrectly. You will simply not get
credit for that question. When taking one of our exams, answer as many questions as you can, even if you are not
certain of your answer.
Back to top
MAINTAINING CURRENCY
Q: I wanted to extend my certification by retaking my last exam but got the information from
Pearson VUE that I’m not allowed to do so because I’ve already finished that. How do I extend
my certification?
A: Check Point policy is that you do not retake an exam you have already passed. You either update or upgrade.
Ideally, the best course is to take the next higher exam.
Q: What is the difference between “Inactive” and “Valid”?
A: “Inactive” means that a candidate has not kept their certifications current in an aggressive threat environment. All
professional certifications - those taken in a proctored exam environment - are good for, or considered “Current”,
for two years. “Valid” refers to the candidate actually having met the requirements for Certification.
Q: What are Continuing Education Credits?
A: Check Point values lifelong learning. It is essential in an ever changing threat environment. Candidates can
acquire Continuing Education Credits by participating in certain events, or by taking certain Low Stakes exams.
Candidates are eligible to acquire two Continuing Education credits in a two year certification period
Q: What low stakes exams are eligible for Continuing Education Credits?
A: Where Check Points High stakes professional exams are primarily focused on performance-based questions, lowstakes
exams are focused more on product knowledge and product features. Currently, on the Pearson VUE
exam site, the following low stakes exams are available:
156-728 – Gaia Overview
156-729 – Advanced IPS
156-730 – SandBlast
156-733 – Mobile Threat Prevention SE
Any two of these will renew your current CCSE certification for one year
1. What are the pre-requisites for the CCSE R75 exam?
CCSA R70 or CCSA 71 or CCSA R75.
2. How can I update my R65 certification?
If you have any CCSA R60 certification, take the CCSA R70/71 Update Training Blade to
update your CCSA certification. If you have a CCSE R60 certification, take the CCSE
R70/71 Update Training Blade to update your CCSE certification.
3. How long is my certification valid?
Check Point certifications are valid for 2 years. CCMAs are valid for 3 years. Any
certification more than three (3) years old is not considered current. Certifications become
inactive after five years. Your benefits may be suspended if your certification is not current.
Your certification can be maintained with annual continuing education credits.
4. What are ‘continuing education credits’?
Continuing education credits help you maintain Check Point certifications without starting
over with every product release. Continuing education credits can be earned in a variety of
ways like completing shorter training lessons (Training Blades), by participating in our test
development process, and even attending CPX.
5. What are the pre-requisites for CCMA?
CCSE is mandatory; CCMSE is suggested.
6. Do you have a test-out option?
Though highly recommended, it is not a requirement to attend a training course before
challenging the exam. You may test at any time, however it is advised you spend at least 6
months working with Check Point products before attempting to achieve certification.
7. Are study materials available?
Free study guides and practice exams are available for download at
http://www.checkpoint.com/services/education/index.html#resources. Courseware can be
purchased on our eStore and Training is available from an ATC.
8. How soon can I re-take an exam if I fail?
If you fail an exam you must wait 24 hours before your 2nd attempt, and 30 days for the 3rd
attempt. Once you pass a test you cannot take it again for a higher score.
9. Can I get exam insurance?
Students automatically get a 50% re-take discount on any 2nd attempt of the CCSA and
CCSE R75 exams.
10. I only failed by 1 point and based on my calculations I should have passed – what
happened?
The function of certification is to provide proof the Check Point Certified professional is
qualified to protect the lifeblood of organizations – their data. Check Point takes this very
seriously and we constantly strive to administer the most effective exams. Passing is
calculated by comparing the number of questions answered correctly versus the number of
questions answered incorrectly. Not all sections of the test are weighted equally.
©2012 Check Point Software Technologies Ltd. .
Classification: [Unrestricted] — For everyone | P. 2
11. Can I take any R65 level exams?
No, all R65 exams have been retired except for the Japanese versions. Our philosophy is to
provide training and certification only for current technologies so our partners and customers
will always benefit from the latest security advancements.
12. Where can I find more information about Check Point Certified Professionals?
The Check Point Certified Professionals website and newsletter are a benefit which contain
special information and resources that are not available to the public.
13. What happens when I pass my exam? When will I receive my Certificate?
After you pass a Check Point exam at VUE, your exam results are uploaded. On the 15th
and 30th, we process all certification results and order certification kits. It takes 6-8 weeks to
receive your certificate. Your advanced access to Secure Knowledge and the Certified
Professionals website is established once you achieve certification.
14. Why can’t I have more than one account at Pearson VUE test centers?
Check Point only allows one Pearson VUE account to track your Check Point exams. If you
change companies, please update the contact information in your Pearson VUE account
instead of creating a new one so your Check Point certifications will follow you. You can
verify your accounts with Customer Service here http://www.vue.com/checkpoint/contact/
15. What happens if someone gets caught cheating? How do you prevent it?
Every individual who takes an exam signs our Non-disclosure agreement. Anyone caught in
the act of cheating or sharing exam items will have their Check Point certifications revoked
for 2 years. All testing privileges and partner program participation will be deactivated during
this time. Check Point collaborates with major technology companies to prevent cheating
through test pattern analysis and distribution best practices. Together we identify and take
legal action against unauthorized test centers and inaccurate “brain dump” sites.
16. What are the benefits of Check Point certification?
Check Point Certified Professionals receive access to the Advanced SecureKnowledge
base, Certified Professionals only website and quarterly newsletter for 2 years. Check
Point Certified Master Architects (CCMA) receive 3 years Expert level access to
SecureKnowledge.
17. How do I access my certification benefits?
Make sure your Check Point User Center (UC) email address matches the email address
registered with Pearson VUE. Your UC profile will automatically be updated with each
certification, including advanced access to SecureKnowledge and the Certified
Professionals only website.
Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R80
Today, managing security is a complex endeavor. The key to managing this complexity is through security consolidation – bringing all security protections and functions under one umbrella. With R80 management, security consolidation is fully realized. This three-day course covers everything you need to start-up, configure and manage the daily operations of your Check Point infrastructure with R80.
TRAINING CALENDAR
SCHEDULE YOUR EXAM
SEARCH FOR YOUR
LOCAL ATC
Course Description
Learn How To
Install R80 management and a security gateway in a distributed environment
Configure objects, rules, and settings to define a security policy
Work with multiple concurrent administrators and define permission profiles
Configure a Virtual Private Network and work with Check Point clustering
Perform periodic administrator tasks as specified in administrator job descriptions
Prerequisites
Basic knowledge of networking
6 months to 1 year of experience with Check Point products recommended
How You Will Benefit
Be prepared to defend against network threats
Evaluate existing security policies and optimize the rule base
Manage user access to corporate LANs
Monitor suspicious network activities and analyze attacks
Troubleshoot network connections
Implement Check Point backup techniques
Exam Information
Exam# 156-215.80
What You Need To Know
Check Point Technology Overview
Security Policy Management
Monitoring Traffic and Connections
Network Address Translations
Basic Concepts of VPN
Managing User Access
Working with ClusterXL
Administrator Task Implementation
Prerequisites
6 months to 1 year of experience with Check Point products recommended
Check Point User Center account
Pearson VUE Test Center account
How You Will Benefit
CCSA’s rank higher than other security vendor professionals
Validation you have the skills to implement the latest network security advancements
Certified Professionals community, newsletter and special web access
Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R77.30
Advance your knowledge on the GAiA operating system! 3-day course covers everything you need to start-up, configure and manage daily operations of Check Point Security Gateway and Management Software Blades systems on the GAiA operating system.
TRAINING CALENDAR
SCHEDULE YOUR EXAM
SEARCH FOR YOUR
LOCAL ATC DOWNLOAD STUDY
GUIDE
Course Description
Learn How To
Install the security gateway in a distributed environment
Configure rules on Web and Gateway servers
Create a basic rule base in SmartDashboard and assign permissions
Schedule backups and seamless upgrades with minimal downtime
Monitor and troubleshoot IPS and common network traffic
Prerequisites
Basic knowledge of networking
Windows Server and/or UNIX skills
Internet and TCP/IP experience
How You Will Benefit
Be prepared to defend against network threats
Evaluate existing security policies and optimize the rule base
Manage user access to corporate LANs
Monitor suspicious network activities and analyze attacks
Troubleshoot network connections
Protect email and messaging content
Exam Information
Exam# 156-215.77
What You Need To Know
Check Point Technology Overview
Deployment Platforms and Security Policies
Monitoring Traffic and Connections
Network Address Translations
User Management and Authentication
Using SmartUpdate
Implementing Identity Awareness
Configuring VPN tunnels
Resolving security administration issues
Prerequisites
6 months to 1 year of experience with Check Point products recommended
Check Point User Center account
VUE Test Center account
How You Will Benefit
CCSA’s rank higher than other security vendor professionals
Validation you have the skills to implement the latest network security advancements
Certified Professionals community, newsletter and special web access
Security Engineering (Check Point Certified Security Expert (CCSE) R77.30)
Advanced 3-day course teaches how to build, modify, deploy and troubleshoot Check Point Security Systems on the GAiA operating system. Hands-on lab exercises teach how to debug firewall processes, optimize VPN performance and upgrade Management Servers. See course description
TRAINING CALENDAR
SCHEDULE YOUR EXAM
SEARCH FOR YOUR
LOCAL ATC DOWNLOAD STUDY
GUIDE
Course Description
Learn How To
Backup your Security Gateway and Management Server
Build, test and troubleshoot a clustered Security Gateway
Upgrade and troubleshoot a Management Server
Configure and maintain security acceletration solutions
Manage, test and optimize corporate VPN tunnels
Prerequisites
Security Administration Course or CCSA certification (R70 or later)
Windows Server, UNIX and networking skills and TCP/IP experience
Certificate management and system adminstration
How You Will Benefit
Build, test and troublehoot numerous deployment scenarios
Apply insider tips troubleshooting Check Point Security Systems
Practice advanced upgrading techniques
Migrate to a clustering security solution
Create events for compliance reporting
Manage internal and external access to corporate resources
Exam Information
EXAM #156-315.77
What You Need To Know
Check Point Technology Overview
Deployment Platforms and Security Policies
Monitoring Traffic and Connections
Network Address Translations
User Management and Authentication
Using SmartUpdate
Implementing Identity Awareness
Configuring VPN tunnels
Resolving security administration issues
Prerequisites
CCSA Certification – R70 or later
Check Point User Center account
VUE Test Center account
Get Ready
Download the study guide
Search for training from your local ATC
Schedule your exam at VUE test centers
Update Exam
UPDATE EXAM #156-915.77
What You Need To Know
If you have any CCSE certification, you can save time and maintain your certification with the CCSE Update exam! The CCSE Update only tests your knowledge on the latest product release. To prepare you should train or study the full CCSE course.
Prerequisites
CCSE Certification – any previous version
Check Point User Center account
VUE Test Center account
MDSM with VSX (Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension)
5-day advanced course teaches how to design, install, configure and manage Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension.
TRAINING CALENDAR
SCHEDULE YOUR EXAM
SEARCH FOR YOUR
LOCAL ATC
Course Description
Learn How To
Install, configure and troubleshoot Multi-Domain Security Managment
Configure and implement a Global Policy
Transition and consolidate physcial firewalls to a virtualized environment
Prerequisites
CCSE or equivalent experience
Check Point User Center account
VUE Test Center account
How You Will Benefit
Consolidate multiple firewalls onto a single management platform
Convert a security management server to a domain management server
Use advanced migration tools to quickly migrate existing configurations
Apply common troubleshooting best practices
Implement MDS High-Availaibility
Exam Information
Exam #156-820.77
What You Need To Know
Install, configure and manage the MDM environment
Discribe common deployment scenarios
Describe the traffic inspection process
Configure DMS High Availability
Configure and implement a Global Policy
Apply common troubleshooting practices
Prerequisites
CCSE R75 or later
6 months to 1 year of experience with Check Point products
Check Point User Center account
How You Will Benefit
Check Point Certified Professionals rank higher than other security vendor professionals
Validation you have the skills to manage enterprise security deployments
Certified Professionals community, newsletter and special web access
Check Point Certified Security Master (CCSM) R77.30
Our most advanced technical 3-day course teaches how to use advanced commands to configure and troubleshoot Check Point Security Systems. Multiple hands-on lab exercises teach how to bring optimization techniques back to your workplace.
Read Customer Testimonials sharing how Check Point Certification propelled the careers of these security experts.
TRAINING CALENDAR
SCHEDULE YOUR EXAM
SEARCH FOR YOUR
LOCAL ATC
Course Description
Learn How To
Identify issues and problems using commands
Locate the source of encryption failures
Identify potentially mis-configured VPNs
Reduce IPS false positives
Troubleshoot SecureXL and ClusterXL
Prerequisites
CCSE or equivalent knowledge
Windows Server, UNIX and networking skills and TCP/IP experience
Working knowledge of network and internet technology
How You Will Benefit
Bypass wait times and fast track to a support engineer
Compare your policy to rules that degrade performance
Tune your systems to improve acceleration of traffic
Improve load capacity through optimization
Improve logging efficiency
Examine how rules and objects affect optimization
Optimize network performance
Exam Information
EXAM #156-115.77
What You Need To Know
How policy changes impact chain module behavior
Identify the source of UGI client connectivity problems
Troubleshoot Secure Internal Communication issues
Configure VPN Tunnel Interface
Deploy IPv6 in a local environment
Use commands to clear the connections table
Configure Open Shortest Path First
Troubleshoot NAT stages
Identify connections in ClusterXL debug file
Prerequisites
CCSE Certification – R70 or later
Check Point User Center account
VUE Test Center account

CheckPoint 156-816

156-816 exam :: Article by ArticleForgeCheckpoint 156-816 exams particular present: GET 10% OFF
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    Childhood adversity predicts previous onset of fundamental melancholy however not decreased hippocampal extent summary
    Childhood adversity may influence severity and age of onset of melancholy, doubtlessly mediated by more suitable vulnerability to an present biochemical or neural mechanism. Prior reports have counseled that decreased hippocampal volume is a result of childhood adversity. This look at examined the connection between childhood adversity, hippocampal volumes and scientific characteristics in girls who were recruited for melancholy background in preference to abuse experiences. Thirty-one ladies with remitted unipolar melancholy and 24 psychiatrically suit girls achieved the Childhood experience of Care and Abuse (Bifulco et al 1994). high resolution MRI scans and hippocampal volumetric choice by stereological assessment had been acquired. We discovered that childhood adversity become associated with a heritage of recurrent depression and with past age of melancholy onset. We didn't discover a relationship between childhood adversity and hippocampal volumes in this sample with light childhood adversity. Our consequences suggest that the decreased hippocampal extent seen in foremost Depressive ailment may well be mediated through further elements. extra research is needed to extra totally have in mind the interrelationships among childhood adversity, hippocampal morphology, neuroendocrine rules, and different genetic and environmental components influencing vulnerability to melancholy.
    key terms: Magnetic resonance imaging, melancholy, abuse, CECA
    1. Introduction
    The link between childhood adversity and the construction of foremost Depressive sickness (MDD) has been commonly studied. MDD has been linked to experiencing actual or sexual abuse, poor parenting, marital discord, and household violence in childhood (Parker 1979; Bifulco et al., 1994; 1998; Parker et al., 1995; Parker et al., 1997; Harkness and Monroe 2002). occurrence fees of childhood abuse or adversity latitude from eight% to 83% in scientific samples of depressed patients and 23% to 68% in neighborhood studies counting on the sample features and on the definitions used to measure the adversity (Brown and Anderson, 1991; Carlin et al., 1994; Mullen et al., 1996; Kessler et al., 1997). for example, definitions of sexual abuse range from “some sort of sexual journey with one other while growing up” (Sedney and Brooks 1984) to “sexual contact between a woman under 15 and someone at least 5 years older” (Briere and Runtz 1988). Most analysis has concentrated on the adult consequences of childhood sexual abuse. different sorts of childhood adversities together with actual abuse, emotional abuse, or parental overlook are receiving improved consideration and also have essential implications for melancholy. it can be stated that numerous phrases are used during the literature to explain childhood adverse experiences together with, adversity, abuse, and trauma. For simplicity, we can use the time period adversity.
    a couple of studies have recommended that childhood adversity is associated with age of onset, course, and remedy response of MDD (Brown and Moran, 1994; Brown et al., 1994; Zlotnick et al., 1995; Kessler et al., 1997; young et al., 1997; Bifulco et al., 1998; Bernet and Stein, 1999; Sakado et al., 1999; Kaplan and Klinetob 2000; Lara et al., 2000). Some reports have discovered a hyperlink between childhood adversity and expanded chronicity of depressive episodes (Brown et al., 1994; Brown and Moran, 1994; Zlotnick et al., 1995; Lara et al., 2000). different experiences have found an association between childhood adversity and prior age of onset of melancholy (Kessler et al., 1997; younger et al., 1997; Bifulco et al., 1998; Bernet and Stein, 1999; Widom et al., 2007). recent studies have suggested that early adversity is associated with an elevated chance of depressive episode recurrence, reduced probability of remission, elevated suicidality, and usual poorer prognosis (Dube et al., 2001, Gilman et al., 2003; McHolm et al., 2003).
    Our old work, in addition to that of different experiences has found an affiliation between MDD and hippocampal extent loss (Sheline et al., 1996; 1999; for experiences see Sheline 2003; Videbech and Ravnkilde 2004). There have additionally been reviews of hippocampal volume alterations in adults with childhood abuse histories and different psychiatric diagnoses (Bremner et al., 1997; Stein et al., 1997; Driessen et al., 2000). Bremner and colleagues discovered smaller hippocampal volumes in adults assembly standards for PTSD secondary to childhood abuse (1997). Stein and colleagues selected an abuse pattern and found smaller hippocampal volumes in women who pronounced sexual abuse in comparison to these with no prior abuse (1997). Others have found an association between abuse experiences and smaller hippocampal volumes in ladies with Borderline character disease (Driessen et al., 2000; Brambilla et al., 2004) and Dissociative identification sickness (Vermetten et al., 2006). because these reviews discovered a relationship between childhood adversity and decreased hippocampal volumes, it turned into hypothesized that the accompanied hippocampal volume deficits in MDD may additionally also be related to childhood adversity. To our knowledge, only one examine has regarded at the association of hippocampal volumes and childhood adversity in MDD (Vythilingam et al., 2002). Vythilingam and colleagues discovered smaller hippocampal volumes most effective within the ladies with MDD who had experienced extreme and extended sexual and/or actual abuse in childhood. They did not locate hippocampal volume changes in women with MDD without abuse histories.
    The intention of this analyze turned into to examine the alterations within the severity of childhood adversity in a pattern of women with a background of MDD and matched controls. second, we investigated whether the severity of childhood adversity is related to melancholy severity, age of onset of MDD, variety of past depressive episodes, and variety of lifetime days depressed. finally, we investigated the relationship between childhood adversity severity and melancholy reputation and hippocampal volumes. so as to cut subjective bias in reporting early experiences, we utilized a rigorous investigator based mostly ranking instrument, the Childhood adventure of Care and Abuse (CECA; Bifulco et al., 1994). Childhood adversity within the core scales of the CECA is conceptualized as caregiver lack of heat or effective regard, emotional or cloth forget about, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and psychological abuse. The CECA is constructive over self-document rankings in a number of techniques (Bifulco et al., 1994). It comprises designated guidance on a wide array of childhood experiences for all family unit members, and it takes into account duration of experiences to allow for greater precise hypothesis trying out.
    We hypothesized that ladies with a heritage of recurrent melancholy would document more severe levels of childhood adversity than women with out histories of depression. We additionally hypothesized that extra extreme levels of childhood adversity would be associated with past age of onset of melancholy, superior number of depressive episodes, and extra lifetime days depressed. eventually, we hypothesized that more severe levels of childhood adversity could be associated with decrease hippocampal volumes.
    2. strategies 2.1 members
    individuals in this study 156-816 have been recruited to take half in one of two neuroimaging reports of melancholy (24 members from Sheline et al., 1999 and 7 participants from Mintun et al., 2004). The facts presented during this paper represents additional analyses to these alread 156-816y posted (see Sheline et al., 1999 and Mintun et al., 2004). Remitted depressed contributors were recruited to the outpatient psychiatry carrier at Washington tuition faculty of medication (WUSM), from referrals from different psychiatrists (17 topics) and additionally from ads to the regularly occurring public (14 topics). handle participants were recruited from the growing older and building challenge maintained by using the Psychology branch at Washington school (13 subjects) and also from notices posted on the scientific center (11 subjects). contributors ranged in age from 23-86 (imply=48.47; SD = 14.88; n=5 over age 70). Inclusion criteria had been a history of recurrent principal depression, with at the least one prior episode requiring psychiatric medicine, female gender, right passed, and no scientific illness doubtlessly affecting the critical worried equipment. No participants with present acute melancholy were included and none had been acutely depressed in the previous four months. handiest ladies had been selected to lower the incidence of occult cardiovascular disease and to reduce gender-based mostly mind variations (Aboitiz et al., 1992). businesses were matched for age, training and submit-hoc for height, a predictor of widespread 156-816 brain size (Andreasen et al., 1994). talents members have been screened the usage of a questionnaire, scientific background, overview of clinical statistics and actual exam. Exclusion circumstances blanketed a latest or past neurological disease, head trauma, uncontrolled hypertension, myocardial infarction or ischemia, diabetes, Cushings disease, steroid use, or drug/alcohol abuse. The senior writer (YIS) used the medical Dementia rating scale (Morris, 1993) to display members for incipient dementia. All individuals had documented normotension. moreover, contributors who had got more than three courses of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) were excluded. 5 individuals had obtained ECT prior to the analyze; as previously said, there were no brain volumetric adjustments between individuals who acquired ECT and those that didn't (Sheline et al., 1999). The Washington school school of medication Institutional overview Board permitted this investigation. All contributors gave written recommended consent just before their participation.
    medical evaluation became conducted via a psychiatrist (YIS) skilled in the use of the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic reports (DIGS). The DIGS is a structured interview with excessive reliability (Nurnberger et al., 1993) encompassing DSM-IV standards. It changed into used to make the diagnosis of past episodes of recurrent main depressive disorder for depressed contributors and to exclude different psychiatric diagnoses for all contributors. in addition, existence Charting (publish et al., 1988) become used to anchor all episodes of melancholy and to investigate the period of depressive episodes. existing antidepressant fame and dosage became determined; nearly all of participants within the remitted depression group have been at the moment taking antidepressant medication (24/31). To verify the presence and severity of any latest depressive indicators all participants were assessed the use of the 17-item Hamilton score Scale for melancholy (HAMD; Hamilton 1960).
    2.2 Measures 2.21 Childhood event of Care and Abuse The Childhood adventure of Care and Abuse (CECA; Bifulco et al., 1994) is a retrospective semi-structured instrument designed to measure the quality of childhood experiences (a while 0-18). The scores are divided up into sections called “family unit arrangements”. A family unit association consists of a selected combination of caregivers with whom the child resides for at the least three hundred and sixty five days. every discipline has one or more family unit arrangements; if the composition of the household adjustments, a brand new family unit association is documented. ratings are given for each caregiver in the household. This interview structure now not handiest serves to boost retrospective recollect, but also assesses greater than just experiences from mom and father. This format additionally does not require individuals to ordinary their experiences over their complete childhood. scores have been made on 5 core domains. The core domains are described as follows:
  • Antipathy: criticism, dislike, coldness, rejection, or hostility towards the newborn
  • Indifference/neglect: the degree to which the caretaker gives for the baby’s emotional needs (activity in faculty, pals, infant’s happiness, fitness and well-being) and fundamental fabric wants (food, apparel, preserve, insurance plan)
  • physical Abuse: violence directed against the infant with the aid of some other person (including strangers, peers, parents, and so on.); severity levels from pushing or slaps on backside, hits on head, hit with object, kicked, bitten, or burned, to threats with gun or knife
  • Sexual Abuse: age-inappropriate sexual contact. Sexual abuse includes intercourse, violation or penetration with object, oral sex, touching of breasts/genitals, requiring discipline to monitor sexual activity or pornography, and verbal solicitations or age inappropriate verbal content
  • Psychological Abuse: cruel or distressing conduct, either verbal or non-verbal. This comprises denigration, humiliation, ridicule, cruelty, deprivation of basic things (meals, easy, sleep), deprivation of treasured objects (social contacts, consolation objects, tormenting or killing pets), threats of abandonment, emotional blackmail, terrorizing, and corruption or exploitation.
  • A CECA ranking guide, developed by using Bifulco and colleagues, incorporates rules for rating and precedent examples. This manual changed into used to e-book all rankings. The CECA makes use of an investigator-based mostly strategy to rating, behavioral indications instead of the discipline’s personal feelings or reports of severity are taken under consideration for the ranking. rankings are made on a 1-four scale (4-little/none, 3-some, 2-moderate, 1-marked) for the entire domains. Two raters rated each and every interview transcript, with at least one rater blind to analysis. The simple rater became trained within the use of the CECA by means of A. Bifulco. the two other raters were trained by using the primary rater the usage of taped recordings of the training workshop and written training substances. Discrepant rankings have been agreed upon in consensus conferences the place reviewers were blind to prognosis and reporting fashion of the discipline. final ratings were based mostly upon the reviewer consensus.
    The CECA has been shown to be authentic in neighborhood experiences performed in tremendous Britain (Bifulco et al., 1994). content material validity has been centered using a sibling corroboration examine (Bifulco et al., 1997). All topics had been in remission of melancholy before receiving the CECA interview.
    2.22 Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    MRI scans have been obtained the use of a Magnetom SP-4000 1.5T imaging system (Siemens scientific methods, Inc., Iselin, New Jersey), and a standard Siemens 30 cm circularly polarized rf head coil. Anatomic images consisted of 128 contiguous 1.25 mm thick sagittal slices and had been got using magnetization prepared speedy gradient echo (MPRAGE) acquisition. specific MPRAGE scanning parameters were: TR=10 ms, TE =four ms, inversion time = 300ms, flip attitude = eight, matrix = 256 × 256 pixels, voxel dimension = 1×1×1.25 mm, slice thickness = 1.25 mm. Hippocampal grey remember volumes had been determined using a similar protocol and similar measurement strategies to those previously described (Sheline et al., 1999) with hippocampal anatomical boundaries defined by means of selected guidelines (Bartzokis et al., 1993; Sheline et al., 1999) the usage of stereological estimation strategies. capacity for gray rely volumes had been decided from a normal of two unbiased measures by the equal rater, who became blind to field identification. Intra-rater reliabilities were improved than 0.9 the use of the intraclass correlations.
    2.three information evaluation
    To cut back the CECA information, common ratings have been built for each and every of the five adversity domains. These normal rankings accounted for each the diploma of adversity and the duration of the score for each caregiver. Adversity from the mother figure changed into calculated by way of summing the 5 domain typical scores for the mother scores. Adversity from the daddy determine was calculated via summing the five domain common rankings for the father rankings. To attain a hallmark of total adversity, rankings obligatory to account for the competencies of alternative caregivers/perpetrators, no longer just mother and father. therefore, for each CECA domain the area score of every caregiver was summed and then divided with the aid of the number of caregivers scored in that domain. These regular scores had been then summed across the five domains, yielding a total Adversity Index. This formulation of information discount debts for trade in adversity rankings over time, as well as varying variety of caregivers existing.
    one other formulation of records discount accepted employs using “height rankings”. The CECA is most appropriate to this formulation on the grounds that the ranking system changed into designed as a dichotomous measure with a big difference between a score of ‘3 –some’ and ‘2-average’. using this dichotomy, adversity changed into classified as “latest” if at each time all over childhood the participant acquired a score of ‘2’ or ‘1’ on any of the CECA domains. Adversity become labeled as ‘absent’ if no ratings of ‘2’ or ‘1’ came about.
    All information were analyzed the use of SAS system for windows, version eight.
    three. consequences 3.1 Preliminary Analyses
    Demographic, medical characteristics and brain volumetric information are summarized in . Two-tailed t-exams have been used to examine remitted depressed and handle subjects on all demographic and MRI measures. there were no colossal differences between remitted depressed individuals and controls on age or schooling. Remitted depressed sufferers scored enormously greater on HAMD ratings than controls. summarizes the CECA rankings. Remitted depressed patients score vastly lower (extra extreme adversity) than the controls on a majority of the CECA domains. When using the peak ranking dichotomy to categorise members, a majority (19/31) of the remitted depressed members suggested having as a minimum one adversity adventure within the marked or reasonable range; whereas, handiest two handle participants suggested having adversity experiences in this range (X2 (1,N=55) = 16.07, P<0.0001).
    Demographic, scientific traits, and brain volumetric records (N=55).
    Childhood adversity transformations between remitted depressives and controls.
    Univariate analyses had been conducted to become aware of the presence of outliers as well because the distribution of the facts. Two outliers for age of onset of melancholy were detected. Subsequent analyses have been run both with and without these outliers. results were the equal for all the analyses when apart from the outliers; for this reason, we simplest record results including the complete pattern. three.2 speculation 1: Severity of adversity and MDD diagnosis
    analysis of Covariance changed into used to look at various the connection between remitted depressed participants and controls on the adversity indices (see ). After controlling for age and HAMD (these variables had been found to be correlated with adversity and hippocampal extent, see Spearman correlations below), remitted depressed participants were enormously more possible than controls to event more extreme stages of adversity common (F (1, fifty one) = 6.86, P=0. 01) and greater severe stages of adversity from father (F (1, fifty one) = 5.61, P= 0.02). there were no giant variations between groups on degrees of adversity from mom (F (1, 51) = 2.07, P= 0.16).
    3.three speculation 2: Severity of adversity and MDD characteristics
    Spearman correlations have been used to test the connection between demographic and medical variables with the adversity indices. giant correlations were discovered between age and complete adversity (rs= 0.39, P=0.03) in the remitted depressed contributors, however not adversity from mom by myself (rs=0.32, P=0.08) or father by myself (rs=0.25, P=0.17). Adversity indices had been no longer drastically correlated with HAMD scores (complete rs= -0.07, P=0.sixty nine; mom rs= -0.20, P=0.29; father rs= -0.01, P=0.ninety five). variety of outdated depressive episodes become not involving adversity scores (mother rs = 0.03, P=0.88; father rs =0.18, P= 0.32; complete rs = 0.07, P=0. seventy one,). Nor changed into there a relationship between variety of days depressed and adversity ratings (mother rs =0.04, P= 0.eighty four; father rs = 0.07, P=0. 71; complete rs =0.13, P= 0.50). within the manage individuals, big correlations have been discovered between HAMD ratings and adversity from mom (rs= -0.fifty two, P=0.009) and complete adversity (rs= -0.forty nine, P=0.02). Age changed into enormously related to adversity from mom (rs= -0.47, P= 0.02) and complete adversity (rs= -0.49, P= 0.02).
    as a way to assess the association between the adversity and age of melancholy onset, we used Cox’s proportional hazards models (Kalbfleisch and Prentice 1980). during this model the price of development to melancholy is examined. given that control contributors have not “yet” developed melancholy, they're considered statistically censored at their latest age. When complete adversity rating from each mom and father is used in the mannequin, the estimated hazard ratio associated with a unit increase of the whole adversity score is 0.731 with a 95% self belief interval from 0.626 to 0.855, indicating a big association between the larger total adversity rating (i.e., less adversity—rating of 1 denotes maximum and rating of four denotes lowest adversity) and a slower cost of establishing melancholy. When adversity from mother is used within the model, the estimated hazard ratio linked to a unit enhance of the adversity rating is 0.743 with a 95% confidence interval from 0.612 to 0.902. When adversity from father is used within the mannequin, the estimated hazard ratio linked to a unit enhance of the adversity score is 0.901 with a 95% self assurance interval from 0.847 to 0.958.
    three.4 speculation 3: Adversity and Hippocampal extent
    Spearman correlations have been used to examine the connection between adversity and total hippocampus measurements. total hippocampus changed into now not tremendously concerning any of the adversity indices in either the remitted depressed neighborhood (total rs= -0.12, P=0.fifty three; mother rs= - 0.07, P=0.72; father rs= -0.10, P=0.60) or the manage community (complete rs= -0.05, P=0.81; mother rs= -0.12, P=0.57; father rs= -0.09, P=0.69). We additionally examined whether hippocampal extent is linked to prognosis and complete adversity after adjusting the impact of age the use of an analysis of covariance model (Milliken and Johnson 2001). We first proven the interplay results between the diagnosis and both the adversity score and age, and found that none of these interaction consequences changed into massive (F (1, 49) =1.02 and 0.20, P=0.317 and 0.656, respectively). hence we outfitted the analysis of covariance model with out these interactive effects, and found that the remitted depressed subjects have a distinct imply hippocampal volume as in comparison to the handle topics after adjusting the impact of adversity and age (F(1,51)=four.70, P=0.035). This analysis indicated a significant age impact on hippocampal quantity (F(1,fifty one)=9.61, P=0.003), whereas the impact of total adversity rating on hippocampal quantity was not statistically big (F(1,51)=0.92, P=0.343).
    We also used the height ranking method to categorize participants into either latest or absent for adversity, even with depression diagnosis, to examine no matter if the presence of severe adversity changed into concerning hippocampal volume. These effects had been also non-massive (data no longer proven). it will be cited that as a result of the small pattern size, we had restricted vigour to show an effect during this model.
    four. discussion four.1 Adversity and MDD traits
    in this pattern of women chosen for depression analysis in preference to abuse experience, we demonstrated the relationships between childhood adversity, clinical features of melancholy, and hippocampal volumes. As anticipated, we found giant changes in experiences of childhood adversity between women with a heritage of recurrent major depression and fit control contributors. We also found a major relationship between childhood adversity and past age of melancholy onset. youngsters, while hippocampal volumes were smaller in depressed topics compared to controls, there became no affiliation between light childhood adversity and hippocampal quantity, suggesting that in our pattern, hippocampal quantity decreases have been mediated by using further components.
    Our discovering of a relationship between childhood adversity and subsequent depression in grownup existence confirms and extends findings in other experiences of early life stress. poor parenting has been proven to increase the risk of depression 1.4 to 2.6 instances (Kessler and Magee 1993). A contemporary longitudinal analyze discovered that childhood physical abuse and forget were linked to an expanded chance of setting up melancholy in young adulthood (Widom et al., 2007). research in each babies and adults means that more desirable frequency, severity, and period of sexual abuse boost the possibility for depression (for a evaluation see Weiss et al., 1999). additionally, childhood adversity might also influence the onset and course of depression. a few reviews using longitudinal, epidemiological, or medical samples imply that childhood adversity is associated with an prior age of onset of depressive signs (Kessler et al., 1997; younger et al., 1997; Bernet and Stein 1999; Widom et al, 2007). Importantly, in comparison with other samples with MDD, our subjects skilled highly reduce severity of childhood adversity, yet even this light adversity changed into associated with recurrent melancholy and more youthful age of depression onset.
    4.2 Adversity and hippocampal volume
    during this examine we didn't find evidence for a contribution of light childhood adversity independent of MDD on predicting smaller hippocampal volumes. This discovering contrasts with some old research examining the connection between hippocampal volumes and childhood adversity in patients who had both MDD and PTSD (Vythilingam et al., 2002) or severe sexual abuse (Bremner et al., 1997; Bremner et al., 2003). There are a couple of key adjustments between our sample and people described with the aid of outdated investigators which may additionally assist clarify the differing findings. First, the investigators in these studies used strict criteria for abuse experiences, which chosen for a sample with greater severe abuse experiences than our sample. 2d, in contrast to previous stories, we used an objective measure of childhood adversity that doesn't account for any subjective affect of abuse experiences. moreover, as opposed to evaluating neighborhood differences between participants with and without abuse, our analyses used a continual measure adversity experience. it's going to be referred to that Vythilingam and colleagues (2004) didn't find huge correlations between hippocampal volumes and their adversity measure total ranking or subscale ratings. finally, our sample didn't include women with other comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, including PTSD.
    a potential consequence of youth adversity is that it sensitizes the individual to stressors taking place later in existence (Hammen et al., 2000). although our analyze doesn't without delay undergo on this question a few stories in the literature, both in rodents and humans imply that stress acts on developmental pathways altering neuroendocrine and neurochemical signaling. for example, studies in rats that experienced low maternal care or separation have proven varied CNS alterations that doubtless underlie sensitization to emphasize, together with: elevated CRF mRNA expression, sensitization of CRF neurons in hypothalamic and limbic areas, lowered glucocorticoid receptor density in hippocampus, reduced neurogenesis in hippocampus, reduced GABA and oxytocin receptor binding, and extended norepinephrine (NE) exercise in locus coeruleus (Plotsky and Meaney 1993; Meaney et al., 1996; Liu et al., 1997, 2000; Caldji et al., 1998, 2000; Ladd et al., 2000; Jimenez-Vasquez et al., 2001; Plotsky et al., 2001; Francis et al., 2002; Huot et al., 2002). moreover, decreased adrenocorticol undertaking and adjustments in Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis feature were noted in non-human primates resulting from adolescence stress (Rosenblum et al., 1994, 2002; Coplan et al., 1996; Maestripieri 1999; Lyons et al., 1999, 2000; Dettling et al., 2002). In people, weight at delivery (a proxy for prenatal stress) become associated with hippocampal quantity simplest in women who pronounced low maternal care right through childhood, suggesting that the postnatal atmosphere may additionally play a task in modulating prenatal possibility elements (Buss et al., 2007). stories in humans have additionally shown improved plasma ACTH response to stress, a discovering that changed into extra suggested in concurrently depressed ladies, altered comments properties of the HPA axis, and changed NE and serotonin functioning in line with formative years stress (Heim et al., 2000; Heim and Nemeroff 2001; Rinne et al., 2002). As proposed by means of Heim and colleagues (2004), neurobiological alterations that happen resulting from formative years can result in alterations that at last trigger repeated depressive episodes after publicity to additional stress. as an example, sensitized CRF and NE techniques along with altered hippocampal feature may also cause stronger and sustained cortisol responses, thereby inflicting mind damage and impairment in neurogenesis, which could lead on to additional disinhibition of the stress response (Heim et al., 2004). as a result, the childhood stresses experienced by our topics can also were enough to confer vulnerability to depression via alteration in neurobiological pathways. Our statistics argue that this vulnerability to depression from childhood adversity turned into no longer accounted for by structural outcomes on the hippocampus; suggesting different elements may additionally even be liable for the diminished hippocampal volume in MDD. for example, genetic reviews in non-human primates have recommended that variations in grownup hippocampal volumes were reflective of inherited variation in hippocampal morphology in place of postnatal stress (Lyons et al., 2001). contemporary studies in people have additionally cautioned genetic diversifications associated with hippocampal volumes in both PTSD (Pitman et al., 2006) and depression (Frodl et al., 2004; Taylor et al., 2005). because we previously found that the course of depression (i.e. complete days depressed) became linked to hippocampal measurement, an option conclusion is that the depressive state itself has a poor impact on hippocampal extent; despite the fact, no consistent findings have been reported so far (O’Brien et al., 2004).
    four.three limitations
    several boundaries of the current record deserve to be addressed. First, studies of childhood experiences are retrospective. In a complete assessment of the reliability of retrospective studies of childhood experiences, Brewin, Andrews, and Gotlib (1993) concluded that, although claims that retrospective reviews are unreliable are exaggerated, boundaries to retrospective reviews must be addressed as a way to enrich their reliability. although definite options contained in the CECA had been used to boost take into account within the latest examine, these recommendations don't tackle the entire problems with retrospective reporting. The small sample dimension might also restrict the vigour of the statistical analyses; we may also no longer had been able to observe any additional contribution adversity may additionally ought to hippocampal adjustments. It should be noted that most of the participants with remitted MDD underwent the MRI scan whereas on antidepressant treatment. Longitudinal experiences in animal fashions have mentioned that SSRI medicine raises hippocampal neurogenesis (Jacobs et al., 2000; Malberg et al., 2000; Czeh et al., 2001; Manev et al., 2001; D’Sa and Duman 2002). despite the fact, this has now not been found in people with MDD (Vythilingam et al., 2004). ultimately, the findings of this look at may also not be generalizable to different populations. This sample consisted of essentially white, middle classification, totally educated women. Our pattern may also no longer have experienced the severity of abuse as has been found in different studies of adversity in MDD. In assessment to different reviews of depression the use of the CECA, we discovered lower prices of sexual abuse and neglect, but similar rates of antipathy, actual abuse, and psychological abuse than these found with the aid of Bifulco and colleagues (1994) and Harkness and Monroe (2002). moreover, the ladies in this sample have been medication responders; the entire participants needed to reach remission with a purpose to get hold of the CECA interview. it is possible that medication non-responders would have greater extreme stories of childhood adversity (Sakado et al., 1999; Dube et al., 2001).
    4.4 summary and future directions
    regardless of these boundaries, we used a rigorous measure of childhood adversity to cost the experiences of a neatly-characterised neighborhood of ladies with recurrent MDD and a gaggle of in shape controls. however our study 156-816 helps that discovering that there's a relationship between childhood adversity and MDD, the nature of this relationship is still not entirely understood. To have in mind this relationship, future reviews should combine assessment of childhood adversity with genetics, neuroendocrine challenges, purposeful neuroimaging tasks and structural MRI reports, preferably in a longitudinal design. this would allow the decision of the interrelationships amongst childhood stressors, inherited version in hippocampal morphology, stress stages of cortisol and neuroendocrine regulation, behavioral vulnerability to emphasize and brain morphology and would further elucidate the interactions between genetic inclinations and environmental components in influencing vulnerability to melancholy.

    components Contributing to Intimate associate Violence among guys in Kerala, IndiaFelitti, V., Anda, R., Nordenbergm, D., Williamson, D., Spitz, A., Edwards, V., Koss, M., & Marks, J. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and family dysfunction to lots of the leading factors of loss of life in adults: the hostile Childhood Experiences (ACE) study 156-816. American Journal of Preventative medication, 14(4), 245–258. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(ninety eight)00017-eight.CrossRefGoogle scholar

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Details Options Security Fallback Availability Constraints Answer: A, B, C QUESTION: 62 Which three LCMS Objects can have Metadata values assigned to them? (Choose three.) Server Layout Viewer Partition File Manager Theme Answer: B, D, F QUESTION: 63 For which three objects types are custom fields available? (Choose three.) role facility survey workflow curriculum organization QUESTION: 64 What happens when an LMS user tries to delete an equipment category which contains equipment items? It is not possible to delete the category that contains equipment items. The category and all equipment belonging to the category will be deleted. The category will be removed from the Equipment Profiles of all equipment belonging to the category. It depends on whether equipment belonging to the category is being assigned to any session. Answer: D QUESTION: 65 Which three LCMS elements are part of the "interactive" element category? (Choose three.) Drag and Drop Mouseover Element Media Element Survey element Simulation Element Glossary Element Command Element Reference Element Answer: B, D, E QUESTION: 66 In LMSwhich button is available from the Pending Request category? Cancel Historical Requests Defer Email QUESTION: 67 Which settings are included in an LCMS animation layout? (Choose four.) delay order width height speed position duration transition Answer: A, E, F, H Reference: www.outstart.com/producthelp/evolution/2011/index.html?page=topics%2 F75.html QUESTION: 68 If you wanted to allow multiple lines of text as metadata, which 'Edit Type' would you use? 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(Choose all that apply.) install encode archive encrypt compress unencrypt Answer: B, C, E Question: 77 When you configure NFS export settings for a share point, selecting "Map All users to nobody" _. prevents export of any items or contents to any users tell the NFS server to treat every user the same: as nobody tells the NFS server to trust what the client reports for user identification creates a shared user list of valid IP addresses to communicate with via NFS Answer: B Question: 78 Using the Windows service in Server Admin, Mac OS X Server v10.3 can be configured to . (Choose all that apply.) allow Guest access reshare NFS volumes be an Active Directory server be a Primary Domain Controller be a member of a Windows workgroup Answer: A, D, E Question: 79 In Mac OS X Server v10.3, you should enable strict locking when you are sharing a volume over . FTP only AFP only SMB only AFT and FTP AFP and SMB Answer: E Question: 80 Network users often have multiple passwords, a distinct password for each network service they access. Which is NOT a valid way to simplify this situation for users in Mac OS X v10.3? Set up a Kerberos environment on the network. Have users store their login information for different servers in Keychain. Set up a directory service to make user and password information available to all computers. Have users access network servers without authenticating, using the Network icon in the Finder-rather than using the Connect Server command, which requires users to authenticate. Answer: D Question: 81 Which is an appropriate FIRST step when performing a software update on multiple computers That have Mac OS X v10.3? Restart each computer in single-user mode. On one computer, choose Download Checked items from the update menu in Software update. On one computer, choose copy update to multiple computers from the update menu in software update. Copy the Software Update preferences from a computer on which the update has been installed to all the other computers. Answer: B Question: 82 You are in a Terminal window, and your current directory is your home directory. What could you Type to display the contents of the file named my file? Which resides in your home directory? cat My File cat /Myfile cat~MyFile cat./MyFile cat ~/MyFile Answer: A, D, E Question: 83 Which statements are true about Open Directory? Choose all that apply Open Directory is extensible via plug-ins. Open Directory runs on Mac OS X Server only. Open Directory does NOT provide load balancing. You manage Open Directory using Open Directory Assisyant. An Open Directory server can function as a windows Primary Domain Controller. Answer: A, E Question: 84 What does the Console utility do? Displays log files Controls monitor setup. 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